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    Default necesito ayuda!!!!!!

    Data collection and analysis

    Ellram (1996) noted that an in-depth analysis of a single
    case is suitable when that case represents a critical example
    that permits exploration of a well-formulated theory just
    like a single experiment. In this instance, we use a singlecase
    study design to help understand and explain the role of
    a 3PL as a supply chain orchestrator. The data collection
    technique used in this study was in-depth interviews, which
    were recorded and subsequently transcribed and analyzed
    (Yin 2002). Using purposive sampling guidelines and the
    literature review developed in the first section of the
    article led us to focus on the executives of a large and
    well-recognized 3PL firm (Firm Z) with a wide range ofcustomers
    that offered transportation management services
    in the United States. Interview participants included seven
    executives from Firm Z and one executive from a large customer
    firm of Firm Z. This approach enabled in-depth analysis
    of the firm itself and external validation from the
    perception of the customer firm.

    The focus of the interviews was to understand the value
    provided by the 3PL to its customers, and the role they play
    to deliver that value. To accomplish this objective, our interview
    protocol borrowed heavily from well-established customer
    value determination methodologies (Woodruff and
    Gardial 1996). Open-ended interview questions were
    designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the 3PL operations
    and services, the benefits accrued to customers, and
    the value delivered through the relationship (see Appendix).
    Each in-depth interview lasted between 60 and 90 min and
    was tape recorded and subsequently transcribed for analysis.
    External validity is assured through replication of findings;
    in this study, using a single case, external validity was
    assessed based on the use of relevant literature as data
    sources, standard protocol, common location for data analysis,
    and review of findings from external reviewers (Esper
    et al. 2007).

    Firm Z is a non–asset-based 3PL that is well known in the
    industry and handles about $1.3 billion in freight costs per
    year. They have been ranked as a Top 10 3PL for five consecutive
    years by Inbound Logistics (2007). As noted earlier,
    the purpose of this case study was not to develop new theory,
    but to provide empirical support for the concepts found
    in the literature. McCracken (1988) noted eight interviews
    are sufficient for many research questions. Therefore, the
    emphasis was to interview enough respondents to get an
    understanding of the changing role of this 3PL (Firm Z) and
    to stop collecting data when the information became redundant
    (Flint et al. 2002).

    Interviews were conducted with seven of the firm Z senior
    executives and one customer, whose titles and areas of focus
    can be seen in Table 2. Each of these executives has a different
    set of responsibilities and as such provided a different
    perspective on the role of the 3PL and the value provided to

    Our research primarily focused on the value a 3PL company
    offers its customers and firm Z prides itself on their
    relentless focus on the customer. Using customer value
    determination research protocol (Woodruff and Gardial
    1996), the participants were asked to describe significant
    attributes, consequences, goals, or value associated with the
    services provided by the company to their customers. This
    prevented any unwanted biasing of the respondents, as they
    were not asked directly about the changing role of a 3PL,
    but instead about the value they themselves provide to the

    An analysis of the interview transcripts pointed to a customer
    value proposition beyond the traditional 3PL offering.
    Specifically, this 3PL had evolved from focusing on the bottom
    line of reducing costs and improving efficiency to adding
    to the top line and providing strategic benefits. The term
    used by one of the executives interviewed that best seems to
    capture this evolving and additive role of a transportation3PL
    company is identical to what we found in the literature
    an ‘‘orchestrator.’’

    We gain a very strong foothold, and at that point, I
    really feel like we’re the orchestrator of their supply
    chain, not just a supplier, not just a vendor, but they’re
    really coming to us to orchestrate that supply chain.
    That takes time. I think that there’s a lot of value in

    Through our research interviews, we gathered support for
    our model, the constructs used to define an orchestrator, and
    our set propositions. The constructs of standardization, visibility,
    neutral arbitrator, and collaborator repeatedly came
    up in the interviews and are discussed below.


    Standardization was identified as a requirement to 3PL functioning.
    The interviewees stated that with multiple carriers
    they simply could not conduct their business without standardization.
    One executive noted the benefit of having standardized
    processes so that information can be shared:
    It becomes a process standardization; it’s a tool for our
    distribution center so that they can plan their inbound
    and outbound work; it’s a tool for our buyer, so that
    they have transactional information as a shipment moves
    within the supply chain. It’s a conduit for our vendors,
    so that they have updated information on routing instructions
    on a P.O. level.

    In the highly competitive 3PL industry, margins are small
    such that companies need to focus on efficiency and standardized
    processes. By specializing in very specific niches in
    the transportation industry, 3PL companies exploit economies
    of scope and economies of scale across multiple firms,
    thereby broadening opportunities to optimize and reduce
    costs. As 3PL firms deal with a wide range of shippers and
    carriers from multiple industries that have their own specific
    rules and processes, being able to standardize data, technology,
    and processes is essential to capitalize on these opportunities.
    Without data and technology standardization, there is
    also no sense of the opportunities for collaboration or ability
    to recognize an exception that needs extra attention.
    Standardization also reduces costs by improving planning,
    thereby reducing reactive behavior such as expediting. 3PLs
    are more successful when they can focus on efficiency, where
    products are shipped and handled under standard procedures
    in a predictable manner. If the 3PL company had to make
    adjustments to the freight constantly, their costs would automatically
    increase. One of the largest costs in shipping products
    occurs when freight must be expedited. One of the
    executives interviewed stated the following:
    Spur-of-the-moment shipments cost everybody the most
    money. That’s why the consumer prices are higher,
    because somebody decides, Well, I’ll just send this out
    LTL or FedEx or whatever, and what we have found is,
    we can go in, and the biggest savings that we have provided
    our companies are LTL consolidation.

    Standardization is enabled by 3PL technology investment.
    A 3PL company, whose core competency might be logistics,
    can invest in technology infrastructure and capability that
    can be shared across multiple customers. This enables the
    3PL to provide a common technology platform that helps to
    standardize data and processes, and enables greater visibility
    and integration across supply chain entities. As one executive

    Another benefit of our technology is to bring some commonality
    across various legacy systems within a shipper
    order system, a manufacturing system, or whatever you
    want to call the accounting system. Some of the many
    internal legacy systems that companies have, and they
    cannot afford to integrate those, even though there have
    been many years of push for enterprise resource planning


    The interviews underscored the importance of visibility.
    Standard data and processes enable visibility to opportunities
    for load consolidation, improved asset utilization, and
    exceptions with the potential for disrupting the supply chain.
    As noted by another executive:
    It gives them visibility to their product, which is probably
    the quickest thing, the thing that most of the customers I
    have dealt with say, I don’t know where my shipment is.
    So, those are things that we can bring to the table immediately,
    and using just our website: Being able to track a
    shipment or a P.O. number, whatever level that we set up
    with them that they want to see; having availability on
    one screen; all of their shipments with all of their carriers,
    pieces and origin and destinations.
    Visibility enables better planning for both carriers and
    shippers in that, carriers can see what other freight is available
    in need of transport and shippers can benefit by seeing
    what carrier capacity is available:
    We have improved freight visibility and improved carrier
    visibility to where carrier capacity is how we can mix
    and match and coordinate shipments and carriers to create
    efficiency and improved service. A shipper has their
    own environment. But, what they don’t know is what
    other freight is around them that they can link up with,
    because they’re concerned about themselves. We bring
    the ability for them to have visibility to other freight networks
    through (our) platform.
    Visibility is a tool that enables 3PL companies to coordinate
    or orchestrate the supply chain by providing information
    they can act on to identify opportunities for
    consolidation or collaboration that are beneficial to carriers,
    shippers, and their customers. This leads to greater efficiency
    for both the carrier and shipper as pointed out by another

    We can bring visibility to that network more efficiently
    and quicker than shippers can do themselves. Because we
    can do that, because we can tell a carrier that they’re
    going to go from a location A to a location B, and that
    they are going to get a load out of location B that gets
    them back home or gets them back to location A or
    another destination. That improves the carrier’s

    Table 2: Characteristics of interviewees

    Title Company Area of focus
    Senior Vice
    3PL Overall strategy and
    Vice President 3PL Logistics services
    Vice President 3PL Logistics services
    Senior Vice
    3PL Operations, which is
    basically the fulfillment
    of our responsibilities to
    our customers and the
    ongoing client
    management of a
    Vice President 3PL Technology development
    Vice President 3PL Business development for
    our logistics technology
    tools and software
    Vice President 3PL Operations—manage
    contract side of our
    business. These are the
    long-term relationships
    with our clients, typically
    very heavy system
    integrated a typically
    three to five year
    long-term contract
    Director Customer Director of inbound
    transportation; I work
    with the Senior Vice
    President of logistics on
    inbound distribution and
    transportation into our
    D.C. network

  2. #2
    Senior Member mvictoria's Avatar
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    Default Re: necesito ayuda!!!!!!

    Hi Jocasol,

    What exactly do you need help with? Are you looking for a proofreading/revision or translation? Into what language?

    Please make a clear request so that someone can help you solve your issue.

    Also, keep in mind that translation is a paid service, we're here to help clear out your doubts but not to do an entire translation of such a large piece of text.


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